Study

Next_gen_seq_of_eye_cancers

Study ID Alternative Stable ID Type
EGAS00001002309 Cancer Genomics

Study Description

Retinoblastoma (RB), the commonest eye cancer in children was the first cancer for which a genetic cause was identified: the Rb1 gene is a tumour suppressor gene that is mutated in RB. The Rb1 gene defect alone does not predict the clinical outcome. We propose to study other possible mechanisms: 1. Stepwise further mutations occur in RB, increasing its carcinogenesis. We will sequence the whole genome in RB tissue, and relate the different genes expressed to the treatments used. 2. Extracellular matric proteins contribute to a tumour permissive environment for RB to continue to grow. This includes Samll Leucine Rich Proteoglycans (SLRP), a family of 15 secreted extracellular matrix proteins involved in eye development. 3. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of treatment resistant cells, drive RB tumours, and whether these stem cells can be manipulated for new therapies. The aim of this study is to assist finding targeted diagnostic techniques and treatments for RB.

Study Datasets 2 dataset.

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001005251 Retinoblastoma (RB), the commonest eye cancer in children was the first cancer for which a genetic cause was identified: the Rb1 gene is a tumour suppressor gene that is mutated in RB. The Rb1 gene defect alone does not predict the clinical outcome. We propose to study other possible mechanisms: 1. Stepwise further mutations occur in RB, increasing its carcinogenesis. We will sequence the whole genome in RB tissue, and relate the different genes expressed to the treatments used. 2. Extracellular matric proteins contribute to a tumour permissive environment for RB to continue to grow. This includes Samll Leucine Rich Proteoglycans (SLRP), a family of 15 secreted extracellular matrix proteins involved in eye development. 3. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of treatment resistant cells, drive RB tumours, and whether these stem cells can be manipulated for new therapies. The aim of this study is to assist finding targeted diagnostic techniques and treatments for RB. . This dataset contains all the data available for this study on 2019-08-14. HiSeq X Ten 47
EGAD00001006431 Background: The development of retinoblastoma is thought to require pathological genetic changes in both alleles of the RB1 gene. However, cases exist where RB1 mutations are undetectable suggesting alternative pathways to malignancy. Methods: We applied comprehensive whole genome sequencing (WGS) and transcriptomics to sporadic retinoblastomas derived from twenty patients attending our clinic, contrasting these results to that obtained through customary clinical testing. We sought RB1 and other driver mutations, investigated mutation burden, mutational signatures and phylogenetic relatedness in one case of bilateral retinoblastoma. Results: At least one RB1 mutation was identified in all retinoblastomas. We confirmed RB1 mutations previously identified by clinical screening, identified three new RB1 mutations and provided clarity to the mechanism behind a further six mutations. Eight tumours carried structural rearrangements involving RB1 ranging from relatively simple to extremely complex rearrangement patterns, including a chromothripsis-like pattern in one tumour. Potential driver mutations included mutations in BCOR (5/20) and amplification of MYCN (2/20) and MDM4 (1/20). We show that RB1 mutations are not mutually exclusive of MYCN amplifications, and further reveal that all tumours demonstrate increased MYCN expression suggesting a universal role in retinoblastoma tumorigenesis.  Bilateral tumours obtained from one patient harboured conserved germline but divergent somatic RB1 mutations, indicating independent evolution. In-keeping with previous WGS of paediatric cancers, the mutation burden in retinoblastomas was extremely low. Mutational signature analysis showed a predominance of signatures associated with cell division and an absence of ultraviolet-related DNA damage. In a tumour exposed to chemotherapy prior to enucleation, a profound platinum-related mutational signature was observed. Conclusions: WGS provides a complete picture of the genomic landscape of retinoblastomas, allowing the discovery of mutations otherwise undetected by conventional clinical screening approaches. The presence of at least one RB1 mutation in all retinoblastomas and the relative paucity of driver mutations in other genes suggests mutations beyond RB1, MYCN and BCOR are rare. Whilst most RB1 mutations are identifiable by clinical screening, the increased resolution and ability to detect otherwise elusive rearrangements of RB1 by WGS, confirming whether they are somatic or germline, has important repercussions on clinical management and advice on recurrence risks. HiSeq X Ten 41

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Publications

Publications Citations
Whole-Genome Sequencing of Retinoblastoma Reveals the Diversity of Rearrangements Disrupting <i>RB1</i> and Uncovers a Treatment-Related Mutational Signature.
Cancers (Basel) 13:2021 None
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