GEDI: A Developmental Model of Gene-Environment Interplay in SUDs: Combined Genotype Dataset from the "Great Smoky Mountains Study" and the "Caring for Children in the Community Study".
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1. Great Smoky Mountains Study (GSMS; Costello et al. 1996, 1997)
Three cohorts of boys and girls, aged 9, 11, and 13 years at intake in 1993, were selected from a rural population of some 20,000 children using a household equal probability design. A two-phase procedure was used for White and African-American youth to increase power by oversampling children at risk for psychiatric and SUDs. Parents (usually mothers) of the first stage random population sample completed a questionnaire about their child's behavioral problems.
Of 4,195 subjects selected, 95% (N=3,896) of parents completed the screen. All children scoring above a predetermined threshold (the top 25% of the total scores), plus a 10% random sample of the remaining 75%, were recruited for detailed interviews. Results can be back-weighted to population levels for analyses. Half of the sample consists of females, and 6% are African Americans, reflecting the population of the study area. The interviewed sample of white and African-American subjects was 1,070 (80% of those recruited). American Indian youth were oversampled (100%) because they are an understudied group known to be at high risk for stressful events, substance disorders, and mood disorders. Of 431 age-eligible children, 350 (81% boys, 49% girls) participated. Thus, the size of total GSMS sample is 1,070 + 350 = 1,420. Data collection is complete for ages 9-26, and age 30 interviews are in progress. By age 26 a total of 9,858 interviews had been completed; the average number of interviews per subject was seven, and by age 26, 97.3% completed two or more interviews.
2. The Caring for Children in the Community Study (CCC; Angold et al., 2002)
This representative study of psychiatric illness and service use in African-American and White youth took place in four rural counties in the southeastern USA. The two-stage sampling design and methods are similar to those used in the GSMS. Of 4,500 youth randomly selected from the 17,117 9- to 17-year-olds in the public school's database, 3,613 (80.0%) were successfully contacted and agreed to complete the behavioral screen. Of the 1,302 selected to participate in the study, 920 (70.7%) interviews were completed. Because CCC was also the only study in GEDI to contain more than a very few African-American participants, these were omitted from the multi-site analyses.
Reprinted with permission from Cambridge University Press from Costello et al., 2013: PMID: 23461817
Costello et al., 1996: PMID: 8956679
Costello et al., 1997: PMID: 9184514
Angold et al., 2002: PMID: 12365876
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