Determination of Cross-Reactive Immunological Material (CRIM) status and longitudinal follow-up of individuals with Pompe disease
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Infantile-onset Pompe disease is an inherited disorder that is normally diagnosed within the first months of life. It is caused by lack of or defect in an enzyme (a special protein that carries out normal chemical reactions within the body) called acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). GAA normally breaks down glycogen (stored sugar) in lysosomes (the part of the cell that digests food and other chemicals). Pompe disease is one of many lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). LSDs are diseases caused by the malfunction of the lysosome or one of their digestive enzymes. Patients with Pompe disease cannot break down lysosomal glycogen. This causes glycogen to build up and damage cells throughout the body, especially in the heart and muscles.
Current treatment for Pompe disease involves enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). In this treatment, the drug alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) is put into your blood. The drug provides a form of the GAA enzyme to replace the enzyme that is missing or not working properly in the patient's blood. This treatment has allowed babies to live longer and achieve developmental milestones.
In this study, researchers will learn about the patient's ability to tolerate ERT. Cross-Reactive Immunological Material (CRIM) is a measurement of natural GAA production. A patient's CRIM status (either positive or negative) is an important factor that affects how he or she responds to ERT with Myozyme. Children who produce some natural GAA are classified as CRIM+, while children who do not produce any natural GAA are classified as CRIM-.
Children who are CRIM+ generally tolerate ERT well. But, children who are CRIM-, and some children classified as CRIM+, have a poor response to ERT. Patients who have a poor response to ERT have complications because their body sees Myozyme as "foreign" and triggers an immune response to try to remove it from the body. Treatments are currently being developed to stop this immune response and prevent complications from ERT.
We will enroll patients with Infantile Pompe disease in this longitudinal natural history (observational) study. The specific aims of this study are:
- To determine and correlate Cross-Reactive Immunological Material (CRIM) status with the GAA gene mutations found on these patients
- To validate an approach for determining CRIM status from whole blood sample, with the gold standard determination of CRIM status by skin fibroblasts and mutation analysis
- To explore the clinical treatment response and natural history of CRIM-positive and CRIM-negative Pompe disease patients with and without immune modulation
- To investigate the role of immune response to treatment
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