The Genomic Landscape of Endocrine Resistant Advanced Breast Cancers: Paired Pre- and Post-endocrine Therapy Samples.
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The genomic evolution of breast cancers exposed to systemic therapy and its effects on clinical outcome have not been broadly characterized. We integrated the genomic sequencing of 1918 breast cancers, including 1501 hormone receptor-positive tumors, with detailed clinical information and treatment outcomes. Functional mutations in ERBB2 and loss-of-function mutations in NF1 were more than twice as common in post-endocrine therapy tumors compared to treatment-naive tumors. Additional alterations in the MAPK pathway (EGFR, KRAS among others) and in estrogen receptor transcriptional regulators (MYC, CTCF, FOXA1 and TBX3) were also more common compared to hormonal therapy-naive tumors.
To determine whether candidate genomic lesions in the MAPK pathway and estrogen receptor transcriptional regulators were present prior to therapy or whether such lesions arose under the selective pressure of therapy, we performed whole-exome sequencing in select patients who had adequate samples acquired prior to and after progression on endocrine therapy. In total, 95 specimens corresponding to 30 treatment-naive primary tumors, 35 post-treatment tumors, and 30 normal samples were sequenced from 30 patients with endocrine-resistant metastatic breast cancer.
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