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Evolution of an adenomacarcinoma in response to selection by targeted kinase inhibitors

Background - Adenocarcinomas of the tongue are rare and represent the minority (20-25%) of salivary gland tumors affecting the tongue. We investigated the utility of massively parallel sequencing to characterize an adenocarcinoma of the tongue, before and after treatment. Results - In the pre-treatment tumor we identified 7,629 genes within regions of copy number gain. 1,078 genes exhibited increased expression relative to the blood and unrelated tumors and four genes contained somatic protein-coding mutations. Our analysis suggested the tumor cells were driven by the RET oncogene. Genes whose protein products are targeted by the RET inhibitors sunitinib and sorafenib correlated with being amplified and or highly expressed. Consistent with our observations administration of sunitinib was associated with stable disease lasting 4 months, after which the lung lesions began to grow. Administration of sorafenib and sulindac provided disease stabilization for an additional 3 months after which the cancer progressed and new lesions appeared. A recurring metastasis possessed 7,288 genes within copy number amplicons, 385 genes exhibiting increased expression relative to other tumours and 9 new somatic protein coding mutations. The observed mutations and amplif ications were consistent with therapeutic resistance arising through activation of the MAPK and AKT pathways. Conclusions - We conclude that complete genomic characterization of a rare tumour has the potential to aid in clinical decision making and identifying therapeutic approaches where no established treatment protocols exist. These results also provide direct in-vivo genomic evidence for mutational evolution within a tumor under drug selection and potential mechanisms of drug resistance accrual.

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00000000045 Illumina Genome Analyzer II 1
Publications Citations
Evolution of an adenocarcinoma in response to selection by targeted kinase inhibitors.
Genome Biol 11: 2010 R82
Consistency-based detection of potential tumor-specific deletions in matched normal/tumor genomes.
BMC Bioinformatics 12 Suppl 9: 2011 S21