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Human genetic heterogeneity accounts for approximately 70% of the observed variability inresponse to common childhood vaccinations. Identifying the elements of this heterogeneitywill enable the development of vaccines which have improved clinical and cost effectivenessthrough rational adjuventation approaches, or by targeting particular at-risk or responsivesubgroups. The studies published to date have been limited in terms of the number of vaccinesubtypes analysed, diversity of the populations included, sample sizes and breadth of otherenvironmental and lifestyle variables which may explain some of the remainder of variation inthe response to each vaccine. Nevertheless, these studies have proposed that the geneswhich harbour the variants associated with vaccine responsiveness reside within regions ofthe genome associated with immune function such as the HLA locus and FOXP1and ITGAL.We are proposing one of the largest genome-wide association studies of vaccine responseever undertaken, which will provide unparalleled power to identify the genetic factorsassociated with the response to all of the most commonly used childhood vaccinesworldwide. For the first phase of the project (Prelim I0308) we genotyped ca. 1,400 childrenfrom the Entebbe Mother and Baby (EMaB) study, an ongoing birth cohort in southernUganda, using the Illumina HumanOmni2.5-8 chip. Analyses for response to vaccinationagainst diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, measles, hepatitis B and BCGare now underway. Working alongside other ongoing studies, we plan for the second phaseof the project to expand sample sizes to up to 7,000 individuals in total. This large cohort willinclude 1,500 South African infants, 500 Burkina Faso infants, 1,800 children from Ecuadorand up to 1,800 from a variety of countries (MAL-ED Consortium). The principal measuredphenotypes will be the serological responses at 6 or 12 months of age to the vaccinesadministered to all enrolled children as part of expanded programme of immunisation in allcountries. As for the primary Ugandan study the responses will be analysed as quantitativetraits using mixed model (GEMMA) analyses following imputation using a combined 1000Genome and African Genome Variation Project reference panel. The data will be analysed asone large discovery mega-analysis to maximise the power of finding the relevant associatedvariants. Interim GWAS analyses will be performed on each population to test for populationspecific signals. Other phenotypes that will be assessed in the new studies includequantitative response to BCG, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines (South Africa, Ecuadorand Uganda), clinical and immunological response to malaria vaccines (Burkina),immunological correlates of atopy (Ecuador and Uganda) and malaria infection (Burkina,Ecuador and Uganda) in addition to non-communicable disease traits such as blood pressurepage 1[A8] If applicable, provide text (abstract) which will accompany data for this study in the ENA/EGA.[A9] Does this project use samples?[A10] Please choose which types of sample you will be using[A12] Please state the anticipated date (month/year) samples will be available in-house (if known). If samples arealready in-house, type 'in-house' here. Please note that for sequencing, genotyping and microarrays this is essentialfor scheduling the work.[A13] Please state the anticipated project start date (month/year).[A14] Please state the project duration (months).[A15] Please read WTSI's Data Sharing Policy and Guidelines, then explain your data sharing plans for the project[A16] Are the data sharing plans of this project compliant with the Institute's Guidelines?[A17] Are there any conflicts of interest related to this proposal?(Uganda).We are requesting funds to genotype on the Illumina HumanOmni2.5-8 platform 2,000 Africaninfants recruited through ongoing maternal and child vaccine clinical trials (againstpneumococcus in Soweto, South Africa, and malaria in Banfora, Burkina Faso). The DNAfrom the Burkina cohort is at the University of Oxford and ready to be shipped, while the DNAfrom the South African cohort will be available by mid-2014. Appropriate consent for geneticanalyses has been acquired for the proposed study cohorts from both local ethics committeesand UK-based Committees.

Click on a Dataset ID in the table below to learn more, and to find out who to contact about access to these data

Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001011379 1
EGAD00010002577 Illumina HumanOmni25M-8v1-1 2499
EGAD00010002578 Illumina HumanOmni25-8v1-1 1391
EGAD00010002579 Illumina HumanOmni25M-8v1-1 353
EGAD00010002580 Illumina HumanOmni25M-8v1-1 755
EGAD00010002581 Illumina HumanOmni25M-8v1-1 353
EGAD00010002582 Illumina HumanOmni25M-8v1-1 755
EGAD00010002583 Illumina HumanOmni25-8v1-1 1391