Clinical and Molecular Investigation of Familial CEBPA-mutated Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are clonal diseases arising from the sequential acquisition of genetic aberrations in haematopoietic stem cells. Whilst the aetiology is predominantly sporadic, rare reports describe the autosomal dominant inheritance of MDS and AML (familial MDS/AML), often presenting in younger patients (<40 years of age) with a germline mutation in one of three haematopoietic transcription factors: RUNX1, CEBPA and GATA2. The clinical recognition of familial disease can be challenging due to wide variations in phenotype, latency and transmission, complicated further by the patients’ awareness and reporting of affected relatives. Distinct clinical manifestations have however been reported for each genetic subtype and whilst RUNX1 and GATA2 mutations can harbour prolonged dysplastic or cytopenic phases, germline CEBPA mutations universally present with AML de novo. Our group were the first to describe germline CEBPA mutations in 3 related individuals, all of whom developed AML between 10-30 years of age. The initial pedigree together with those described in the intervening period, were predominantly isolated case reports with limited follow up, hence long term outcomes for this group of patients remain poorly defined. This contrasts with CEBPA mutations occurring in 10-15% of sporadic AML with normal karytoype (NK-AML), where double mutations (CEBPAdm, found in approximately 50% of all CEBPA-AML) are considered a unique molecular entity, associated with favourable clinical outcomes. In sporadic and familial CEBPAdm AML, N’ terminal mutations enforce translation of the shorter P30-kDa isoform and are typically accompanied by C’ terminal insertions or deletions (disrupting the DNA-binding and/or Leucine zipper domains). Definition of the full molecular landscape awaits extensive whole exome sequencing, although GATA2 mutations (targeting the Zinc Finger 1, ZF1, domain) have been reported in 20-40% of sporadic CEBPAdm AML and recent targeted resequencing analysis revealed a further association with WT1 mutations. With minimal clinical and molecular information available for familial CEBPA-AML, we are often consulted regarding the management of this unique patient population. To address this need, we have investigated a multi-centre cohort of families with germline CEBPA mutations, providing extended clinical follow up, whole exome profiling of secondary mutations and molecular analysis of relapsed disease.
- Type: Other
- Archiver: EGA European Genome-Phenome Archive