Genomic analyses promise to improve tumor characterization in order to optimize personalized treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exome sequencing analysis of 243 liver tumors revealed mutational signatures associated with specific risk factors, mainly combined alcohol/tobacco consumption, aflatoxin B1 and HBV infection. We identified 161 putative driver genes associated with 11 recurrent pathways. Associations of mutations defined 3 groups of genes related to risk factors and centered on CTNNB1 (alcohol), TP53 (HBV) and AXIN1. Analyses according to tumor stage progression revealed TERT promoter mutation as an early event whereas FGF/CCND1 amplification, TP53 and CDKN2A alterations appeared at more advanced stages in aggressive tumors. In 24% of the tumors, we identified genetic alterations potentially targetable by FDA-approved drugs. In conclusion, we identified risk factor–specific mutational signatures and defined the extensive landscape of altered genes and pathways in HCC, which will be useful to design clinical trials for targeted therapy.