Möbius syndrome (MBS; MIM 157900) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by paralysis of the facial nerves and variable other congenital anomalies. The etiology of this syndrome has been an enigma since the initial description in 1880 by von Graaefe and in 1888 by Möbius, and it has been debated for decades whether MBS has a genetic or a non-genetic etiology. Here, we reveal various de novo mutations affecting two genes, PLXND1 and REV3L. The finding that de novo mutations can cause Möbius syndrome will have considerable impact on further research, as well as in diagnostics. PLXND1 and REV3L represent totally unrelated pathways involved in hindbrain development: neural migration and DNA translesion synthesis, essential for the replication of endogenously damaged DNA. However, analysis of Plxnd1 and Rev3l-mutant mice revealed that both genetic defects converge at the facial branchiomotor nucleus, affecting either motoneuron migration or proliferation.