Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has the worst mortality of any solid cancer. To evaluate the clinical implications of genomic alterations in this tumor type, we performed whole-exome analyses of 24 tumors, targeted genomic analyses of 77 tumors, and used non-invasive approaches to examine tumor-specific mutations in the circulation of these patients. These analyses reveal somatic mutations in chromatin regulating genes MLL, MLL2, MLL3, and ARID1A in 20% of patients that were associated with improved survival. We observe alterations in genes with potential clinical utility in over a third of cases. Liquid biopsy analyses demonstrate that 43% of patients with localized disease have detectable circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) at diagnosis. Detection of ctDNA after resection predicts clinical relapse and poor outcome, and recurrence by ctDNA is detected 6.5 months earlier than with CT imaging. These observations provide genetic predictors of outcome in pancreatic cancer and have implications for new avenues of therapeutic intervention.