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JMML targeted sequencing (2013)

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare myelodysplastic myeloproliferative neoplasm of early childhood initiated by germline or somatic RAS-activating mutations (Chang, Dvorak et al. 2014). Clinical evolution is heterogeneous, with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation in 1/3 of cases and frequent relapses after hematopoietic-stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), although some patients experience spontaneous remission (Locatelli, Nollke et al. 2005; Matsuda, Shimada et al. 2007; Takagi, Piao et al. 2013; Locatelli and Niemeyer 2015). The initiating lesion incompletely predicts outcome, suggesting the involvement of additional mutations. Genetic profiling of a large JMML cohort (n=118), including whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 30 cases, uncovered additional genetic abnormalities in 56 cases (47%). Somatic events were rare (0.38/case/Mb) and restricted to sporadic (47/78; 60%) or NF1-associated (8/8; 100%) JMML. Multiple concomitant genetic hits were identified targeting the RAS pathway in 13/78 (17%), RAC2D63V, which activates the PI3K/PDK1/AKT and the mTORC2 pathways, and a novel pathway for JMML, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), in 26/78 (33%) of the sporadic JMML cases. Interestingly, PRC2 imbalance was recently shown to synergize with RAS activation (De Raedt, Beert et al. 2014). JMML outcome was associated to the mutational profile, suggesting a dose-dependent effect for RAS-pathway activation, distinguishing very aggressive JMML rapidly progressing to AML.

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001001451 Illumina MiSeq 75