Genomic studies in African populations provide unique opportunities to understand disease aetiology, human genetic diversity and population history in a regional and a global context. To leverage the relative benefits of different strategies, we undertook a combined approach of genotyping and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in a population-based study of 6,400 individuals from a geographically defined rural community in South-West Uganda. We present data from 4,778 individuals with genotypes for ~2.2 million SNPs from the Uganda GWAS resource (UGWAS), and sequence data on up to 1,978 individuals spanning 41.5M SNPs and 4.5M indels (UG2G); 343 individuals overlap between the two datasets.
We highlight the value of the largest sequence panel from Africa to date as a global resource for variant discovery, imputation and understanding the mutational spectrum and its clinical relevance in African populations. Alongside phenotype data, we provide a rich new genomic resource for researchers in Africa and globally.