TRACERx 100: whole exome data of the first 100 TRACERx tumours
BACKGROUNDTRACERx (TRAcking Cancer Evolution through therapy (Rx)) is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) in relation to clinical outcome, and to determine the clonal nature of driver events and evolutionary processes in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODSMultiregion high-depth whole-exome sequencing (M-seq) was performed on 100 early stage NSCLC tumors resected prior to systemic therapy. A total of 327 tumor regions were sequenced and analyzed to define evolutionary histories, obtain a census of clonal and subclonal events, and assess the relationship between ITH and recurrence-free survival (RFS). RESULTSWidespread ITH was observed for both somatic copy number alterations (median 48% [0.03-88%]) and mutations (median 30% [0.5-93%]). Driver mutations in EGFR, MET, BRAF and TP53 were almost always clonal. However, heterogeneous driver alterations occurring later in evolution were found in over 75% of tumors and were common in PIK3CA, NF1 and genes involved in chromatin modification and DNA response and repair. Genome doubling and ongoing dynamic chromosomal instability (CIN), illustrated by mirrored subclonal allelic imbalance, were identified as causes of ITH resulting in parallel evolution of driver copy number events, including amplifications of CDK4, FOXA1, and BCL11A. Elevated copy number heterogeneity was associated with shorter RFS (HR=4.9, P=0.00044), which remained significant in a multivariate analysis.CONCLUSIONSITH mediated through CIN, rather than point mutational heterogeneity, was associated with increased risk of relapse, supporting its value as a prognostic predictor, and the need to target this high-risk phenotype.
Archiver: EGA European Genome-Phenome Archive
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