Suppressors and activators of JAK-STAT signaling at diagnosis and relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Down Syndrome
Children with Down Syndrome (DS) are prone to development of high risk B-cell precursor ALL (DS-ALL) that differs genetically from most sporadic pediatric ALLs. Increased expression of CRLF2, the receptor to thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) characterizes about half of DS-ALLs and also a subgroup of sporadic “Philadelphia-like ALLs”. To understand the pathogenesis of relapsed DS-ALL we performed integrative genomic analysis of 25 matched diagnosis remission and relapse DS-ALLs. We found that the CRLF2 rearrangements are early events during DS-ALL evolution and generally stable between diagnoses and relapse. Secondary activating signaling events in JAK-STAT/RAS pathway were ubiquitous but highly redundant between diagnosis and relapse, suggesting that signaling is essential but that no specific mutations are “relapse driving”. We further found that activated JAK2 may be naturally suppressed in 25% of CRLF2 positive DS-ALL by loss-of-function aberrations in USP9X, a deubuitinase previously shown to stabilize the activated phosphorylated JAK2. Interrogation of large ALL genomic databases extended our findings up to 25% of CRLF2 positive, “Ph like” ALLs. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of USP9X as well as treatment with low-dose Ruxolitinib enhanced the survival of pre-B ALL cells overexpressing mutated JAK2. Thus, somehow counterintuitive, we found that suppression of JAK-STAT “hyper-signaling” may be beneficial to leukemic B cell precursors. This and the reduction of JAK mutated clones at relapse suggest that the therapeutic effect of JAK specific inhibitors may be limited. Rather, combined signaling inhibitors or direct targeting of the TSLP receptor may be a useful therapeutic strategy for DS-ALL.
- Type: Other
- Archiver: European Genome-Phenome Archive (EGA)
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Suppressors and activators of JAK-STAT signaling at diagnosis and relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Down syndrome.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114: 2017 E4030-E4039