We mapped the prevalence of genetically distinct clones over 248 regions in 54 childhood cancers. This revealed that primary tumors can simultaneously follow up to four evolutionary patterns in different anatomic areas. The most common pattern consists of a fluctuating presence over anatomic space of subclones with very few mutations. The second most common is a surprisingly stable coexistence, over vast areas, of clones with different changes in chromosome numbers. This is contrasted by a third, less frequent, pattern where a novel clone harboring driver mutations or structural chromosome rearrangements completely replaces its progenitor. The fourth and rarest pattern is the local emergence of a myriad of clones with TP53 inactivation. Strikingly, death from disease was limited to tumors exhibiting the two latter, most dynamic patterns.