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Gut microbiome modulates response to anti PD1 immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma patients

There is a growing appreciation of the role of the microbiome in cancer, and evidence in pre-clinical models that the gut microbiome may modulate responses to immune checkpoint blockade though this has not been well-characterized in patients. We analyzed the oral (n=86)and gut (n=43) 16S microbiome in melanoma patients on PD-1 blockade. Significant differences were noted in the diversity and composition of the gut microbiome between responders and non-responders in patients with a fecal microbiome sample, with significantly higher alpha diversity and relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae bacteria) in R. Metagenomic studies (n=25) revealed functional differences in gut bacteria in R including enrichment of anabolic pathways. Immune profiling demonstrated enhanced systemic and anti-tumor immunity in patients with a favorable gut microbiome as well as in germ-free mice receiving fecal transplant from responding patients. Together, these data have important implications for treatment with immune checkpoint blockade in cancer. The fastq files associated with this dataset are stored at ENA under the following accession numbers: PRJEB22894 (Fecal 16S), PRJEB22874 (Oral 16S), PRJEB22895 (Murine 16S), PRJEB22893 (Fecal WGS).

Click on a Dataset ID in the table below to learn more, and to find out who to contact about access to these data

Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001003797 Illumina HiSeq 2500 20
EGAD00001003943 167
Publications Citations
Gut microbiome modulates response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in melanoma patients.
Science 359: 2018 97-103
Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma.
Nat Med 24: 2018 1649-1654
Publisher Correction: Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma.
Nat Med 24: 2018 1942
Meta-analysis of the gut microbiota in predicting response to cancer immunotherapy in metastatic melanoma.
JCI Insight 5: 2020 140940
Predicting cancer immunotherapy response from gut microbiomes using machine learning models.
Oncotarget 13: 2022 876-889