Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a squamous-cell carcinoma and has remarkable ethnic and geographic distribution, with a high prevalence in southern China, southeast Asia, northern Africa and Alaska. Although there are previous studies implicated NF-κB pathway play an important role in NPC. Newer research also found several important cellular processes and pathways in NPC, including chromatin modification, ERBB-PI3K signaling and autophagy machinery. Put these studies together, although, NPC is still poorly understood at the genetic level. Here we determined the mutational landscape of 553 cases with NPC using whole-genomic and whole-exome sequencing. These approaches revealed a distinct mutational signature and significantly mutated genes.