Neoadjuvant immune checkpoint blockade in high-risk resectable melanoma
We conducted a randomized phase II study of neoadjuvant nivolumab versus combined ipilimumab with nivolumab in 23 patients with high-risk resectable melanoma (NCT02519322) and assessed clinical responses and immune correlates. Treatment with combined ipilimumab and nivolumab yielded high response rates (RECIST overall response rate 73%, pathologic complete response rate 45%) but substantial toxicity (73% grade 3 treatment related adverse events), whereas treatment with nivolumab monotherapy yielded modest responses (RECIST overall response rate 25%, pathologic complete response rate 25%) and low toxicity (8% grade 3 treatment related adverse events). Immune correlates of response were identified, demonstrating higher lymphoid infiltrates in responders to both therapies and a more clonal and diverse T cell infiltrate in responders to nivolumab monotherapy. Mutational load was also higher in responders to therapy.
Archiver: EGA European Genome-Phenome Archive
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