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Lenalidomide Resistance in del(5q) Myelodysplastic Syndrome Follows Loss of RUNX1/TP53-mediated Megakaryocytic Differentiation

Interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 (del(5q)) is the commonest structural genomic variant in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Lenalidomide (LEN) is the treatment of choice for patients with del(5q) MDS, but half of the responding patients become resistant within two years. TP53 mutations are detected in ~20% of patients who become resistant to LEN. Our data show that patients who become resistant to LEN harbor either TP53 or RUNX1 mutations or loss of RUNX1 expression. Here we show that LEN-induced degradation of IKZF1 permits a RUNX1/GATA2 complex to drive megakaryocytic differentiation and consequent del(5q) MDS progenitor cell death via CRBN-mediated CSNK1A1 degradation. Overexpression of GATA2 is able to restore LEN sensitivity in the context of RUNX1 or TP53 mutations by enhancing LEN-induced megakaryocytic differentiation. Screening for TP53 and RUNX1 mutations or downregulation should identify patients resistant to LEN, and strategies to activate GATA2 may resensitize del(5q) MDS cells to LEN

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001005769 16