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Comprehensive Genomic Characterization of Refractory Multiple Myeloma Reveals a Complex Mutational and Structural Landscape Associated with Drug Resistance (H067)

Outcome of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) refractory to immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs) and proteasome inhibitors (PIs) is still very poor. To elucidate the genetic landscape of relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM) we performed whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of 39 heavily pretreated RRMM patients with at least double refractoriness revealing complex structural changes and a high mutational load (H067/K08K). We found a median of 67 structural variants and 116 nonsynonymous exonic mutations per patient. Assessment of oncogenic drivers showed NRAS, BRAF, TP53, KRAS, SLC4A7, FAM46C, DIS3, RB1, KMT2C, MLLT4, EWSR1, HCFC2, and COPS3 as significantly mutated. We found multiple genomic regions with bi-allelic events affecting known tumor suppressor genes, most frequently TP53, RB1, and TRAF3. Supervised analysis of mutational signatures showed a major contribution of Cosmic signature 6 associated with deficiency in DNA mismatch repair and the ‘BRCAness’ signature which coincided with mutations in genes known to confer PARP inhibitor sensitivity. Recurrently mutated gene networks included genes with relevance for PI and IMiD activity, the latter including in particular members of the Cereblon and the COP9 signalosome complex. In conclusion, this comprehensive genomic characterization revealed a complex mutational and structural landscape in RRMM and highlights potential implications for therapeutic strategies.

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001006189 HiSeq X Ten Illumina HiSeq 2000 Illumina HiSeq 4000 116
EGAD00001008363 -
Publications Citations
Resolving therapy resistance mechanisms in multiple myeloma by multiomics subclone analysis.
Blood 142: 2023 1633-1646