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Super enhancers define regulatory subtypes and cell identity in neuroblastoma

Half of the children diagnosed with neuroblastoma have high-risk disease, disproportionately contributing to overall childhood cancer-related deaths. In addition to recurrent gene mutations, there is increasing evidence supporting the role of epigenetic deregulation in disease pathogenesis. Yet, comprehensive cis-regulatory network descriptions from neuroblastoma tissues are lacking. Here, using genome-wide H3K27ac profiles across 60 neuroblastomas, covering the different clinical and molecular subtypes, we identified four major super enhancer-driven epigenetic subtypes and their underlying master regulatory networks. Three of these subtypes recapitulated known clinical groups, namely MYCN amplified, MYCN non-amplified high-risk and MYCN non-amplified low-risk neuroblastomas. The fourth subtype, exhibiting mesenchymal characteristics, shared features with multipotent Schwann cell precursors, was induced by RAS activation and enriched in relapsed disease. Notably, CCND1, a disease essential gene, was regulated by both mesenchymal and adrenergic regulatory networks converging on distinct super-enhancer modules. Together, this reveals subtype-specific super-enhancer regulation in neuroblastoma.

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001006285 Illumina HiSeq 2000 60