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Identification of the dismal subtype of B-ALL with dysregulation of CDX2 and UBTF

PURPOSE: Advance in the knowledge of genomic basis of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) has changed the treatment approaches and diagnostic assays and improved their outcome. Despite the recent development of next generation sequencing approaches, there are still some cases that their drivers are unknown. We aimed to define and describe the characteristics of an additional B-ALL subtype by integrating genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic approach. METHODS: More than 2,000 B-ALL cases of RNA-seq data from from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) and the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) (n=764), the Children's Oncology Group (COG), Munich Leukemia Laboratory (MLL) (n=280), and other several collaborators were analyzed to identify the new subtype. Whole genome sequence was performed to detect mutations, stractural variants, and copy number alterations. The tridimentional analysis of chromatin was performed with HiChIP. RESULTS: We identified the new high-risk B-ALL subtype “CDX2/UBTF” that exhibited unique gene expression profiles, which is enriched in female (77.3%), adolescents and young adults (52.6%), and relapse cohort (3.3%). CD10 negativity and IgM positivity are hallmarks of this subtype with NTRK3 expression that can be an effective marker at diagnostic approach and a potential targeted therapy with TRK and mulkinase inbitors, larotrectinib and entrectinib. Genetically, two different alterations define CDX2/UBTF. One is UBTF-ATXN7L3 fusions caused by deletion of 17q21.31, and the other is extopic CDX2 expression through the enhancer hijacking mechanism induced by deletion of 13q12.2. Other genomic features include gain of 1q and PAX5 rearrangement (PAX5-ZCCHC7), might induce upregulation of histone cluster genes and PAX5. CONCLUSION: We described the novel B-ALL subtype “CDX2/UBTF” that has unique clinical and genomic characteristics.

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001008416 Illumina HiSeq 3000 Illumina NovaSeq 6000 15
Publications Citations
Enhancer retargeting of CDX2 and UBTF::ATXN7L3 define a subtype of high-risk B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood 139: 2022 3519-3531