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Molecular and clinical diversity in primary central nervous system lymphoma: a LOC Network study

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a distinct extranodal lymphoma presenting with limited stage disease but variable response rates to treatment despite homogenous pathological presentation. The likely underlying molecular heterogeneity and its clinical impact is poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of 147 PCNSL from fresh-frozen tumor tissue from immunocompetent, treatment naïve PCNSL patients, employing whole-exome sequencing, assessment of somatic copy number alterations and DNA methylation, and RNA expression. These data were integrated and correlated with the clinico-radiological characteristics and outcomes of the patients. We validated our results in an independent series of 93 PCNSL formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Consensus clustering of multi-omics data identified four robust, non-overlapping, prognostically significant clusters (CS) within PCNSL. The CS1 group, characterized by high proliferation and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) complex activity had an intermediate outcome between CS2/CS3 and CS4. Patients who had PCNSL with an “immune-hot” (CS4) profile had the most favorable clinical outcome. In contrast, patients with the immune-cold hypermethylated CS2 and the heterogenous-immune CS3 groups had a poor prognosis. Nearly all PCNSL patients with meningeal infiltration harbored HIST1H1E mutations, enriched in the CS3 group. The integrated analysis suggests that the CS4 group may be more susceptible to immunotherapy. The integration of genome-wide data from multi-omics data revealed four molecular patterns in PCNSL with a distinctive prognostic impact that significantly improved the current clinical stratification. This molecular classification using FFPE samples facilitates routine use in clinical practice and provides potential precision-medicine strategies in PCNSL.

Click on a Dataset ID in the table below to learn more, and to find out who to contact about access to these data

Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001008706 Illumina HiSeq 2000 Illumina NovaSeq 6000 1
Publications Citations
Molecular and clinical diversity in primary central nervous system lymphoma.
Ann Oncol 34: 2023 186-199