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WXS and RNA-seq for 22 patients treated with radiation + immunotherapy

Over 500 active clinical trials are investigating combination radiation (RT) and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) as a cancer treatment; however, the majority of trials have found no positive interaction. We performed a comprehensive molecular analysis of a randomized phase I clinical trial of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with concurrent or sequential ablative RT and ICB. Concurrent treatment was superior to sequential treatment in augmenting local and distant tumor responses and improving overall survival in a subset of patients with highly aneuploid tumors, but not in those with less aneuploid tumors. Our analysis suggested that concurrent treatment eliminated immunologically cold aneuploid tumors better than sequential treatment and improved patient outcomes. In addition, we report that RT alone decreased intratumoral cytotoxic effector T cell and adaptive immune gene expression signatures, in contrast to upregulation of key immune pathways after concurrent administration of RT and ICB. Our findings distinguish the differential genomic and transcriptomic effects of RT versus RT and ICB and challenge the prevailing paradigm that local ablative RT beneficially stimulates the immune response. We propose the use of tumor aneuploidy as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target in personalizing treatment approaches for patients with NSCLC treated with RT and ICB.

Click on a Dataset ID in the table below to learn more, and to find out who to contact about access to these data

Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001008733 Illumina NovaSeq 6000 98
Publications Citations
A proliferative subtype of colorectal liver metastases exhibits hypersensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy.
NPJ Precis Oncol 6: 2022 72