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Targeted therapy of advanced parathyroid carcinoma guided by genomic and transcriptomic profiling (hipo_021)

Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an orphan malignancy with a high risk of recurrence after surgery. Tumor-directed systemic treatments for PC are not established. We used whole-genome and RNA sequencing in four patients with advanced PC to identify molecular alterations that could guide clinical management. In two cases, the genomic and transcriptomic profiles provided targets for experimental therapies that resulted in biochemical response and prolonged disease stabilization: (i) immune checkpoint inhibition with pembrolizumab based on high tumor mutational burden and a single-base substitution signature associated with APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like) overactivation; (ii) multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition with lenvatinib due to overexpression of FGFR1 and RET and, later in the course of disease, PARP inhibition with olaparib prompted by signs of defective homologous recombination DNA repair. In addition, our data provided new insights into the molecular landscape of PC with respect to the genome-wide footprints of specific mutational processes and pathogenic germline alterations. These data underscore the potential of comprehensive molecular analyses to improve care for patients with ultra-rare cancers based on insight into disease biology.

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001009730 Illumina HiSeq 4000 Illumina NovaSeq 6000 4
EGAD00001009731 HiSeq X Ten 8