Next Generation Mendelian Genetics: Congenital Hyperinsulinism
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The NHGRI Next Generation Mendelian Genetics project uses exome resequencing to identify variants in unsolved Mendelian diseases.
Congenital Hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in the newborn and it is due to mutations in 8 different genes (ABCC8, KCNJ11, GLUD1, GCK, HADH, SLC16A1, HNF4A and UCP2). It is a heterogeneous disease with variable onset (birth to adulthood) and a persistent, intermittent, or transient course with possible later conversion to non-autoimmune diabetes. Although mutations in the two subunits of the KATP channel (ABCC8 and KCNJ11) account for 50% of the cases, the other half is still genetically unexplained. CHI can be inherited in a dominant or recessive and can also present as a 'de novo' mutation.
We became part of this study when we submitted 8 DNA samples for exome sequencing, from patients with CHI of Caucasian ancestry, which had no mutations identified in ABCC8 or KCNJ1, with the goal to identify new mutations in known genes or new mutations in new genes or genetic variants.