Accurate Immune Repertoire Sequencing Reveals Malaria Infection Driven Antibody Lineage Diversification in Young Children
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This study describes a novel Immune Repertoire Sequencing technique, termed Molecular Identifier Clustering-based Immune Repertoire Sequencing (MIDCIRS), to reduce sequencing error while maintaining extremely high coverage and applies this technique to investigate the differential immune response to malaria between infants and toddlers. Despite a lower somatic hypermutation load, we found an unexpectedly high level of competency within the infant antibody repertoire, particularly the ability to diversify B cell clonal lineages upon acute infection. Detailed clonal lineage analysis encompassing lineages containing sequences from both pre- and acute malaria timepoints revealed an increase in somatic hypermutations upon acute infection. Further analysis on pre-malaria memory B cell containing lineages in toddlers who had previously been exposed to malaria provides evidence for the capacity of memory B cells to continue to mutate and isotype switch.