Loss of IFN-gamma Signaling in Tumor Cells Associates with Primary Resistance to Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy
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Antibody blockade of the inhibitory CTLA-4 pathway has led to clinical benefit in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma. Anti-CTLA-4 enhances T cell responses, including production of IFN-γ, which is a critical cytokine for host immune responses. However, the role of IFN-γ signaling in tumor cells in the setting of anti-CTLA-4 therapy remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that, based upon exome sequencing data, patients identified as non-responders to anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) harbor a much higher genomic defects in the IFN-γ pathway genes than melanoma patients who had clinical response to ipilimumab therapy.