Scalable whole-exome sequencing of cell-free DNA reveals high concordance with metastatic tumors
|Study ID||Alternative Stable ID||Type|
We performed whole genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and whole-exome sequencing of matched tumor biopsies and germline DNA from patients with metastatic cancer. Using ichorCNA, a software tool that quantifies tumor content in ultra-low pass whole genome sequencing (~0.1x) of cfDNA without prior genomic characterization of the tumor, we show genome-wide concordance between cfDNA and tumor biopsies and detectability of high tumor fractions (>0.1) in the cfDNA of many patients with metastatic cancer. We then established that whole-exome sequencing of cfDNA can enable comprehensive profiling of tumors from blood, with high tumor-content cfDNA samples demonstrating concordance of clonal somatic mutations, copy number alterations, mutational signatures, and neoantigens with matched tumor biopsies. This study introduces a new method to identify patients that could be eligible for tumor profiling from cfDNA and sheds light on the concordance between metastatic tissue and blood biopsies.