An Immunogenic Personal Neoantigen Vaccine for Melanoma Patients
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Effective anti-tumor immunity in humans has been associated with presence of T cells targeting neoantigens that arise from non-silent tumor-specific mutations. Here we conducted whole-exome sequencing of tumor and normal cells from individual patients to identify mutations. We assessed the expression of mutated alleles by RNA-sequencing of tumor. We demonstrated the feasibility, safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine that targets up to 20 personal neoantigens predicted to be presented by the autologous patient tumor.