Immunoprotective mechanisms and microbiota interplay in Salmonella Typhi infection
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Vaccine development against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) requires a better understanding of interaction between human host and the resident microbial consortia in gastrointestinal tract. Healthy adult volunteers received either Ty21a, M01ZH09 or placebo, and underwent challenges with wt S. Typhi. Stool samples were collected at the screening interview (Baseline 1), prior to the first vaccination visit (Baseline 2), during vaccination (Day -28 and -26 for placebo and M01ZH09 groups; Day -32, -30, -28, -26 for Ty21a group), prior to challenge with S. Typhi (Day 0), and after challenge (day 0 12h, day 1, day 3, day 7, and day 10). 16S rRNA and messenger RNA were extracted from stool and sequenced on the Illumina Miseq and HiSeq 2000 platforms, respectively.