NIDA Genetic Epidemiology of Opioid Dependence in Bulgaria (GEODB)
|Study ID||Alternative Stable ID||Type|
The study was conducted in Bulgaria as a collaboration between the Molecular Medicine Center (Medical University, Sofia), the Bulgarian Addictions Institute (Sofia), the Initiative for Health Foundation (Sofia) and Washington University School of Medicine (Saint Louis, MO, USA).
This is a case-population control study. Participants (N=2,499 interviews; N=1,995 with GWAS data) in our study are primarily active heroin users (78%) aged 18 and over, with a median 8.9 years of daily heroin use (minimum of 12 months). Virtually all participants (99.1%) qualified for a lifetime DSM-IV diagnosis of dependence, symptom endorsement probabilities ranging from 77% to 99.3%; and 61% endorsing all symptoms. 85% were heroin injectors and 97% reported using (or having used) heroin daily. Anonymized, population-representative control samples (no phenotypic data, N = 1,062 with GWAS data) were drawn from the MMC repository. Unlike other studies, where samples are clinically ascertained (e.g., from ORT programs), our participants are primarily untreated.
PTSD, major depression, ... (Show More)