||The majority of neuroblastoma patients have tumors that initially respond to chemotherapy, but a large proportion of patients will experience therapy-resistant relapses. The molecular basis of this aggressive phenotype is unknown. Whole genome sequencing of 23 paired diagnostic and relapsed neuroblastomas showed clonal evolution from the diagnostic tumor with a median of 29 somatic mutations unique to the relapse sample. Eighteen of the 23 relapse tumors (78%) showed RAS-MAPK pathway mutations. Seven events were detected only in the relapse tumor while the others showed clonal enrichment. In neuroblastoma cell lines we also detected a high frequency of activating mutations in the RAS-MAPK pathway (11/18, 61%) and these lesions predicted for sensitivity to MEK inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide a rationale for genetic characterization of relapse neuroblastoma and show that RAS-MAPK pathway mutations may function as a biomarker for new therapeutic approaches to refractory disease.