Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers and the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide1. Approximately 70% of the global esophageal cancers occur in China and over 90% histopathological forms of this disease are esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)2-3. Currently, there are limited clinical approaches for early diagnosis and treatment for ESCC, resulting in a 10% 5-year survival rate for the patients. Meanwhile, the full repertoire of genomic events leading to the pathogenesis of ESCC remains unclear. Here we show a comprehensive genomic analysis in 158 ESCC cases, as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) Research Projects (http://icgc.org/icgc/cgp/72/371/1001734). We conducted whole-genome sequencing in 14 ESCC cases and whole-exome sequencing in 90 cases.