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Aims and objectives 1. To produce a ‘first generation map’ of mutational burdens and mutational processes that operate in normal human tissues. 2. To examine clonal units and their distribution across normal human tissues with the emphasis on these particular areas: a) Tissues with an architecturally defined unit: Are architectural structures populated by a progeny derived from a single stem cell? Are clonal units confined to a given architectural structure? Examples of tissues where such approach will be used include prostate gland (acini and ducts), small bowel (crypts), thyroid gland (follicles) and others. b) Tissues without an architecturally defined unit: What is the average size of clonal populations? This group includes stratified/pseudostratified epithelia with a basal layer within which there are stem cells that give rise to a progeny of cells showing upwards migration and lateral expansion (e.g. urothelium, cervical squamous epithelium, respiratory epithelium). This approach can also be used in tissues with a sheet-like cell arrangement, for example brain and adrenal gland. Methods To answer these questions, we will use a range of normal human tissue samples which have already been collected from a single deceased individual. The samples are currently stored in a -80C freezer. Ethanol fixed frozen sections will be prepared from these biopsies. Putative clonal units will be identified and dissected out using laser capture microscopy. DNA extraction will be performed using the in-house (CGP) protease based method. In terms of sequencing methods, the project will be split into 2 phases (2 different approaches): - Phase 1: This part of the project will utilise a combination of low input library preparation (developed by Peter Ellis) and standard whole genome sequencing (HiSeqX). The phase has already started (December 2016). This approach will be particularly useful in investigation of mitotically active tissues. - Phase 2: This part of the project will utilise a combination of low input library method (Peter Ellis) and Bottle-neck sequencing (BotSeqS). BotSeqS is a type of duplex sequencing method that offers a more accurate variant calling and allows genome interrogation at a single cell level. This method is currently being developed and is expected to be implemented in 3-6 months (March-April 2017). This approach will be particularly useful for post-mitotic tissues and tissues without pre-defined architectural units.

Click on a Dataset ID in the table below to learn more, and to find out who to contact about access to these data

Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001006641 HiSeq X Ten Illumina NovaSeq 6000 1
EGAD00001008764 HiSeq X Ten Illumina NovaSeq 6000 408