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Germline variants collaborate with somatic mutations and initiate and/or drive disease in primary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN)

Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (T-MN) are poorly characterized secondary hematological malignancies following chemotherapy/radiotherapy exposure. We compared the clinical and mutational characteristics of T-MN (n=129) and primary myelodysplastic syndrome (P-MDS, n=108) patients. Although the somatic mutation frequency was similar between T-MN and P-MDS patients (93% in both groups), the pattern was distinct. TP53 mutations were more frequent in T-MN (29.5% versus 7%), while spliceosomal complex mutations were more common in P-MDS (56.5% versus 25.6%).In contrast to P-MDS, the ring sideroblasts (RS) phenotype was not associated with better survival in T-MN, most probably due to genetic association with TP53 mutations. SF3B1 was mutated in 96% of P-MDS with ≥15% RS, but in only 32% T-MN. TP53 mutations were detected in 92% T-MN with ≥15% RS and SF3B1 wild-type cases. Interestingly, T-MN and P-MDS patients with “Very low” or “Low” Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R) showed similar biological and clinical characteristics. In a Cox-regression analysis, TP53 mutation was a poor prognostic factor in T-MN, independent of IPSS-R cytogenetic, disease-modifying therapy and NRAS mutation.Our data have direct implications for T-MN management and provide evidence that, in addition to conventional disease parameters, mutational analysis should be incorporated in T-MN risk stratification.

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001004861 Illumina HiSeq 2000 NextSeq 500 396