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Clinical relevance of somatic copy-number alterations in plasma circulating tumor DNA from advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients treated with osimertinib

Background: Somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) are associated with drug resistance in patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The purpose of our study was to assess the clinical relevance and development of genome-wide SCNAs in plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) under osimertinib therapy.Methods: We included 43 patients with advanced EGFR T790M-positive lung adenocarcinoma who were treated with osimertinib after progression under previous EGFR-TKI therapy. We performed genomic profiling of ctDNA in plasma samples from each patient obtained pre-osimertinib and after patients developed resistance to osimertinib. SCNAs were detected by shallow whole-genome plasma sequencing and EGFR mutations were assessed by droplet digital PCR.Results: SCNAs in resistance-related genes (rrSCNAs) were detected in 10 out of 39 (25.6%) evaluable patients before start of osimertinib. The presence of rrSCNAs in plasma before initiation of osimertinib therapy was associated with a lower response rate to osimertinib (50% versus 86%, p=0.02) and was an independent predictor for shorter progression-free survival (adjusted HR 3.26, 95% CI 1.37-7.75, p=0.008) and overall survival (adjusted HR 2.41, 95% CI 1.09-5.34, p=0.03).Conclusions: Genomic profiling of plasma ctDNA is clinically relevant and affects the efficacy and clinical outcome of osimertinib. Our approach allows comprehensive assessment of SCNAs in plasma samples of lung adenocarcinoma patients and may help to guide genotype-specific therapeutic strategies in the future.

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Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001007505 Illumina MiSeq NextSeq 550 1
Publications Citations
Somatic Copy-Number Alterations in Plasma Circulating Tumor DNA from Advanced EGFR-Mutated Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients.
Biomolecules 11: 2021 618