Androgen deprivation therapy treated patients (n=11) were recruited from an open label neoadjuvant phase II study in which patients with high-risk disease received a ‘supercastration’ regimen consisting of degarelix 240/80 mg subcutaneously every four weeks; abiraterone acetate 500 mg orally daily titrating upwards every two weeks by 250 mg to a final dose of 1000 mg daily; bicalutamide 50 mg orally daily; and prednisolone 5 mg orally twice daily for a total of 6 months (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12612000772842). Untreated patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics were obtained from a prospective prostatectomy biorepository22,23. Prior to ligation of the dorsal venous complex and prostate pedicles, the anterior prostate was defatted and the specimen was removed immediately, placed in a sterile container and transferred on ice for long-term storage in the vapour phase of liquid nitrogen. A total of 50–100 µg of adipose tissue was separated from fresh frozen samples stored at −160°C. RNA was isolated using the Qiagen RNeasy Lipid Tissue Mini Kit and eluted in 35 µL nuclease-free water. 0.5–1 µg of total RNA was used as the input for cDNA library synthesis using TruSeq RNA Sample Prep Kit v2 (Illumina), and libraries were constructed according to manufacturer’s instructions. Samples were sequenced on a HiSeq 2500 (Illumina) using 101 base paired-end chemistry, aiming for 50 million mapped paired-end reads per sample.