Fetal origins of malignant germ cell tumours

Dataset ID Technology Samples
EGAD00001007038 HiSeq X Ten,Illumina NovaSeq 6000 N/A

Dataset Description

Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a collection of benign and malignant neoplasms derived from primordial germ cells (PGCs). They are uniquely able to generate embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, which in malignant GCTs carries prognostic and therapeutic significance. The developmental pathways underpinning GCT initiation and histogenesis are incompletely understood. Here, we studied the phylogenetic and transcriptional diversity of 15 malignant gonadal GCTs and four normal testis biopsies by sequencing 131 whole genomes and 416 transcriptomes from 14 gonadal histologies, excised by laser capture microdissection. Our findings demonstrate that tumours were initiated by whole genome duplication likely in embryogenesis, within ~5-8 cell divisions post-PGC specification, followed by chromosome 12p gains associated with invasive disease. Of note, 12p imbalances were not only generated through GCT-typical isochromosomes, but also through non-isochromosomic configurations. Whilst tumours developed along homogenous phylogenetic pathways, they spawned manifold tissues independent of genetic subclonal diversification. A key feature of GCT tissues was the expression of fetal-specific genes. The transcriptional diversity notwithstanding, we found universal transcriptional elements correlated with hallmark 12p gains. Overall, our study reveals stereotyped phylogenies and transcriptomes underpinning the development of GCT that originate in fetal life and may lend themselves to therapeutic manipulation.

Data Use Conditions


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Label Code Version Modifier
general research use DUO:0000042 2021-02-23
institution specific restriction DUO:0000028 2021-02-23
publication required DUO:0000019 2021-02-23
user specific restriction DUO:0000026 2021-02-23