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Genome of the Netherlands

The Genome of the Netherlands (GoNL) Project characterizes DNA sequence variation, common and rare, for SNVs, short insertions and deletions (indels) and larger deletions in 769 individuals of Dutch ancestry selected from five biobanks under the auspices of the Dutch hub of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-NL). The samples come from a representative sample of 250 trio-families from all provinces in the Netherlands. The parent-offspring trios include adult individuals ranging in age from 19 to 87 years (mean=53 years; SD=16 years) from birth cohorts 1910-1994. Sequencing was done on blood-derived DNA from uncultured cells and accomplished coverage was 14-15x. Samples where contributed by LifeLines (, The Leiden Longevity Study (;, The Netherlands Twin Registry (NTR: http://www.tweelingenregister. org), The Rotterdam studies, ( and the Genetic Research in Isolated Populations program ( The sequencing was carried out in collaboration with the Beijing Institute for Genomics (BGI). The analysis was done by a consortium lead by UMCG, LUMC, Erasmus MC, VU university and UMCU, see Funding for the project was provided by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research under award number 184021007, dated July 9, 2009 and made available as a Rainbow Project of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Research Infrastructure Netherlands (BBMRI-NL).

Click on a Dataset ID in the table below to learn more, and to find out who to contact about access to these data

Dataset ID Description Technology Samples
EGAD00001000743 -
EGAD00001000744 -
EGAD00001000821 Illumina HiSeq 2000 767
EGAD00001001038 -
EGAD00001002261 Illumina HiSeq 2000; -
Publications Citations
The Genome of the Netherlands: design, and project goals.
Eur J Hum Genet 22: 2014 221-227
Improved imputation quality of low-frequency and rare variants in European samples using the 'Genome of The Netherlands'.
Eur J Hum Genet 22: 2014 1321-1326
Whole-genome sequence variation, population structure and demographic history of the Dutch population.
Nat Genet 46: 2014 818-825
Characteristics of de novo structural changes in the human genome.
Genome Res 25: 2015 792-801
Genome-wide patterns and properties of de novo mutations in humans.
Nat Genet 47: 2015 822-826
Transmission of human mtDNA heteroplasmy in the Genome of the Netherlands families: support for a variable-size bottleneck.
Genome Res 26: 2016 417-426
A high-quality human reference panel reveals the complexity and distribution of genomic structural variants.
Nat Commun 7: 2016 12989
A SNP panel for identification of DNA and RNA specimens.
BMC Genomics 19: 2018 90
RNA-Seq in 296 phased trios provides a high-resolution map of genomic imprinting.
BMC Biol 17: 2019 50
WGS-based telomere length analysis in Dutch family trios implicates stronger maternal inheritance and a role for RRM1 gene.
Sci Rep 9: 2019 18758