In this study, we identified miR-130a as a regulator of HSC self-renewal and differentiation. To characterize gene expression changes following enforced expression of miR-130a OE, we performed RNA-seq in CD34+ cord blood (CB) cells transduced with control and miR-130a OE lentiviruses. To capture miRNA targets in an unbiased, transcriptome-wide manner, we perfomed enhanced CLIPseq procol in 2 replicates of CD34+ CB cells and Kasumi-1 cell line, which represent a model system for t(8;21) AML. We chose this cell line, as we found miR-130a to be highly expressed in this AML subtype where it is critical for maintaining the oncogenic molecular program mediated by AML1-ETO. Chimeric Ago2 eCLIPseq in CD34+ CB cells combined with Mass Spectrometry data analysis identified TBL1XR1 as a principal target of miR-130a. To elucidate gene expression changes associated with TBL1XR1 loss of function, we performed RNA-seq in CD34+CD38- CB cells transduced with control and shRNA targeted against TBL1XR1. To determine the functional significance of high miR-130a expression levels in Kasumi-1 cells on the molecular network controlled by AML1-ETO, we performed CUT&RUN assay and RNA-seq in Kasumi-1 cells following miR-130a knock-down (KD). Collectively, our findings reveal a unique role of miR-130a in regulating normal hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and how elevated levels of miR-130a in t(8;21) AML contribute to the leukemogenesis of this AML subtype.